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This guide provides an overview of 3D cultures and assays. Visit the 3D Assays page to view ordering information for a full list of assays optimized for use in 3D cultures.

Introduction to 3D Cell Culture

3D cell cultures are increasingly being used for basic research and drug discovery. Here you'll learn what 3D cell cultures are, why and how they are being used, and how to choose assays used with 3D models.

What is 3D Cell Culture?

3D cell culture is a culture environment that allows cells to grow and interact with surrounding extracellular framework in three dimensions. This is in contrast with traditional 2D cell cultures in which cells are grown in a flat monolayer on a plate. 3D cell cultures can be grown with or without a supporting scaffold.

Scaffold 3D cell culture

3D cells may be cultured within a supporting scaffold to allow growth in all directions.

Popular types of scaffold include:

Hydrogels: Polymeric material containing a network of crosslinked polymer chains that can absorb and retain water. Hydrogels can be derived from animals (Matrigel®, collagen) or plants (alginate/agarose), or synthesized from chemicals (QGel® Matrix).

Inert matrices: Sponge-like membranes made of polystyrene which contain pores for cells to proliferate and grow.


Scaffold-free 3D cell culture

3D cultures can be grown without the presence of a supporting scaffold. Scaffold-free methods rely on cells to self-assemble into clusters or spheroids.


Webinar: Overview of 3D Cell Culture Model Systems

Learn the pros and cons of commonly used 3D culture models and methods for detecting cell viability, apoptosis and oxidative stress in 3D cultures.

View Webinar

Why Use 3D Cell Culture?

For a long time, scientists have relied on flat 2D cell cultures grown on a plate to study cellular and disease mechanisms. 2D cell models are simple and cost-effective to culture and process. Within the last decade, however, 3D cell cultures have become increasing popular because they are more physiologically relevant and better represent in vivo tissue.

If you think about it, no cell types within our body grow as a monolayer independent of other cells or tissue. Instead, most cells naturally exist in complex 3D structures including different cell types within an extracellular matrix. The numerous cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions all have a profound effect on their behavior. In addition, 2D monolayers have uniform access to nutrients and oxygen, which is not the case in cell masses, such as tumors. 3D tumor spheroids are much more representative of in vivo tumors in which inner cells have less access to nutrients and oxygen compared to the outer layer, forming a natural gradient.


Feature Story: The Promises and Challenges of 3D models

"That’s what we’re always doing with models: Trying to get them closer to being representative. I think everyone recognizes that 3D is a step forward."

In this feature article, you'll learn about the advantages and challenges of using 3D cell cultures.

Read Article

3D Cell Culture Applications

3D cell models are increasingly being used to understand disease mechanisms and discover drug therapeutics. The process may involve deriving 3D cultures, such as cancer organoids, from patients. The 3D cultures can be used to screen for small molecule drugs or genetically manipulated to understand disease pathways. Compared to 2D cultures, 3D cell cultures more accurately predict the efficacy or toxicity of drug treatment

Monitoring Biology in 3D Cultures


How 3D Cultures Are Used in Drug Development

"I look at developing 3D liver models for nanomaterial assessment...We are aiming to build a battery of models that can reduce or replace animal testing." 

"We are developing screens using organoids. We believe they are the next generation 3D model...and offer better predictive outcome in the clinic."


Together, let's create a better world without animal testing. Let’s replace, reduce, and refine.

3D models are a chance to move away from animal testing. By offering you a range of cell health assays compatible with 3D experimentation, Promega supports you implementing the 3R (Replace, Reduce, Refine) in your research. Learn more about our solutions to replace animal testing in cosmetics.
Learn About Animal Free Testing Solutions
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